Mismatch 1: morphosyntax: passive
Mismatch 2: word class: verb/adjective
Applied to a transitive verb, the passive suffix -(r)are- forms a 'normal' passive (with object promotion and subject demotion):
|'Pat hit Max.'||'Max was hit by Pat.'|
|'Pat hit John on Max.'||'Max had his son hit by Pat.|
There is, however, another construction involving -(r)are- which does not alter the argument structure at all, and so can be regarded as a mismatch, in as much as the expected agent demotion does not occur. Passive verbs are also one of the strategies used for marking 'subject honorific', i.e. where respect is shown to the grammatical subject:
|'The teacher bought a book.'||'The teacher bought a book.'|
The plain (i.e. non-honorific) negative form of verbs is morphologically an adjective. The formal differences are shown below:
Note that the morphological correspondence is not absolute. The accentual pattern of negative verbs is distinct from that of adjectives (Backhouse 2004: 52), and negative verbs have a gerund in -naide (called the naide-conjuctive by Backhouse 2004: 53), found neither in positive verbs nor in adjectives.
Syntactically, negative verbs pattern with their positive counterparts in some respects. Thus, valence patterns are maintained under negation, with transitives taking an accusative object:
|'A calls B.'||'A doesn't call B.'.|
With adjectives, accusative objects are found only rarely, alongside nominative objects (Backhouse 2004: 53). Another thing that positive and negative verbs share is their participation in constructions with yooni 'so that, lest', which is not used with adjectives (Backhouse 2004: 56).
On the other hand there are a few constructions peculiar to adjectives and negative verbs, as opposed to positive verbs. For example, either can be a complement of naru 'become', while positive verbs must first be made into adjectives:
|'The days grow longer [as the summer comes.]'||'become unable to do (it)'.|
|'become able to do (it)'|
|Backhouse 2004: 54-55|
Other shared features include use of the auxiliary aru in certain constructions (positive verbs take a different auxiliary, suru), and the fact that in a construction with hoo ga ii 'in is better to do/be', adjectives and negative verbs occur in the nonpast form, while positive verbs occur in the past tense form (without having a past tense meaning) (Backhouse 2004: 55).
Backhouse, Anthony E. 2004. Inflected and uninflected adjectives in Japanese. In: R. M. W. Dixon and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds) Adjective classes: a cross-linguistic typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 50-73.
Martin, Samuel. 1975. A reference grammar of Japanese. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Oshima, David Y. Forthcoming. Semantic divergence of -(r)are: from a different perspective. To appear in Japanese/Korean Linguistics 13 . Available at: http://www.stanford.edu/~davidyo/publications.htm.
Spencer, Andrew. Ms. Paradigm-based lexicalism: negation in Japanese. Available at: http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~spena/publications.htm.