Where possible, abbreviations follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules, which seek to standardise linguistic glossing. Explanations of the linguistic terms are found in Timothy R. Montler's An Outline of the morphology and phonology of Saanich, North Straits Salish (1986, Missoula, MT: UMOPL) and/or in Claire K. Turner's PhD Thesis Representing events in Saanich (Northern Straits Salish): The interaction of aspect and valence (2011, University of Surrey).

Key to abbreviations

1 1st person
2 2nd person
3 3rd person
antip activity antipassive
aux auxiliary
c control
caus causative
cmd command
com comitative conjunction
comp complementizer
connec connector
contr contrastive conjunction
dem demonstrative
desid desiderative
det determiner
dim diminutive
dir direct
direct directional
dist distal
eff effort
erg ergative
ev evidential
explan explanative
fem feminine
fut future
gnrl general
have have
imm immediate
inch inchoative
ipfv imperfective
lim limiting
locat locational
mid middle
nc non-control
neg negative
nmlz nominalizer
obj object
obl oblique preposition
partake partake
pass passive
persis persistent
pfv perfective
pl plural
pn proper name
poss possessive
prep preposition
prf perfect
prox proximal
prs present
pst past
q yes/no question particle
rdr redirective applicative
recip reciprocal
refl reflexive
rel relational applicative
rem remote
req request information
res resultative
sbj subject
sg singular
tr transitive


- separates an affix from its base
= separates a clitic from its host
~ indicates reduplication
< > indicates infixation
\ indicates stem change
/ indicates alternate meanings (rarely used)
; indicates phonological coalescence/contraction of two affixes or clitics
[ ] indicates a meaning with no formal realization/exponence
. is used when more than word is needed to gloss one element