The Case of Modifier in Phrases with ‘two’, ‘three’, ‘four’ Database allows you to calculate the frequencies of modifiers (e.g. adjectives) in the nominative plural or genitive plural in subject or object phrases containing the numerals dva/dve ‘two’, tri  ‘three’ and četyre ‘four’. These phrases require a modifier in either the nominative or genitive plural, and the query will return results showing percentages for each of the competing forms within the set of examples selected. For each time slice the percentage of nominative (plural) and the percentage of genitive (plural) forms is given. As these are the only possibilities both percentages will sum to 100%. The percentages are accompanied by the raw numbers of examples extracted from the corpus. Queries may be specified with respect to time periods, individual authors, as well as morphological, syntactic and semantic parameters. Where necessary, help texts, explaining particular parameters are provided.  To read these texts, hover over the question mark near the search parameter label. To modify your query, go to a respective box and select a new value (or values). All other parameters from your previous query will remain unchanged.

Time period options

By default, the query will return results from the entire 200 century period covered by the database.  Alternatively, you can create composite time periods based on the 20-year or 50-year slices. 50 years: This gives the figures divided into four 50-year slices from 1801 to 2000. 20 years: This gives the figures divided into ten 20-year slices from 1801 to 2000. The drop down menus allow you to combine several consecutive periods into one period. Select one of the two options:  50 years or 20 years and then specify the start and end dates. Statistics will be returned in one column for the period specified. For example, the 80-year period running from the beginning of 1861 to the end of 1940 can be examined by selecting the 20-year option and specifying From 1861-1980 To 1921-1940.

Searching by properties of modifier

Position of modifier

To conduct a search, select the order of the element in the the noun phrase: ‘Num’ – numeral, ‘MOD’ – modifier under investigation, ‘[MODnom]’ – modifier in the nominative case, ‘[MODgen]’ – modifier in the genitive case. A substantivised adjective is an adjective that is used referentially and inflects for case.

Case of modifier

In quantified expressions with the numerals 'two', 'three' and 'four', modifiers may in principle stand in the nominative or the genitive case. Refine you query by restricting the case of the modifier in quantified expressions.

Searching by properties of the numeral

Search across all numeral types or refine your search by selecting a subset of numerals.

Searching by properties of the noun


Animate nouns are comprised of human (including kinship terms) and non-human nouns (such as animals and supernatural creatures) and contrast with inanimate nouns. Refine your search by selecting a subset of all subjects based on their animacy.

Substantivised adjective

This category comprises adjectives and adjectival participles, which fill the position of a noun in a quantified expression. Refine your search by excluding instances of substantivised adjectives, or searching only for substantivised adjectives.


The head noun is sometimes omitted in quantified expressions. Refine your query by searching only for examples with ommitted head nouns, or excluded examples with omitted head nouns from your results.

Ambiguity of genitive singular and nominative plural

In quantified expressions with ‘two’, ‘three’, ‘four’, nouns take the genitive singular. With some nouns this form is ambiguous with the nominative plural (both in writing and in pronunciation). Refine your search by selecting only inflectional classes and accentual patters where ambiguity is found, or exclude ambiguous instance from the results. Alternatively conduct a user defined search.

Inflectional class

Russian nouns belong to one of four inflectional classes. Refine you query by selecting a subset of inflectional classes from which to return search results.

Accentual pattern

Nouns in Russian belong to different accentual classes. Refine you query by selecting a subset of accentual patterns from which to return search results.

Searching by author

The author search function allows you to restrict the results returned to those examples found in works of individual or multiple authors. Leave all author names unselected to return results form the entire corpus.

Statistics from previously published sources

To view the results of previous statistical studies on the phenomena in question, click the Statistics button at the the bottom of the form. Use a Select button to refer to a particular author, and then select a row with a conditioning factor (or with a combination of factors) for which you would like to see statistics. Please note that only one author may be selected at a time. Statistics are structured as in the original source.